Barbarisms and foreignisms.
Barbarisms are the words that have not entirely assimilated into English.
First of all, the sphere of their usage is science. And they are felt as something alien to the native tongue.
Chic = stylish, bon mot = a clever witty saying, en passant = in passing, ad infinitum = to infinity.
Foreign words, though used for some stylistic purposes, do not belong to the English vocabulary, and they are not registered by dictionaries (except addenda).
Barbarisms are generally given in the body of a dictionary.
Such words (foreign) are italicized in order to denote their stylistic value.
Barbarisms are not made conspicuous as a rule.
Barbarisms should be distinguished from terminological borrowings (concerto, solo, blitzkrieg). Terminological borrowings have no synonyms, while barbarisms do.
Barbarisms are a historical category.
Often they are used by writers to emphasize local conditions of life.
E.g. They consumed schinken, braten and kartoffeln and cranberry jam…
Another function is realized when they are used in indirect speech:
e.g. The Cretans were very willing to feed and hide the Inglisi. Or they sent out their benzina to catch us and look for guns.
They are subdivided into: terminological coinages and stylistic coinages.
Among stylistic coinages are: blends (musicomedy, cinemactress, avigation=aviation + navigation, smog= smoke + fog.
Nonce-word sevenish(around 7 o’clock), morish(a little more), the bestest-the most bestest.
Contractions and abbreviations: jeep (GP-General Purpose car).
Phonetic and Graphical Stylistic Devices.
Onomatopoeia – imitation of natural sounds:
Cuckoo ding-dong, buzz, bang, ping-pong, roar
Indirect onomatopoeia: And the silken, sad, uncertain rustling of each purple curtain.
Page 125 Galperin…
Alliteration: is a phonetic SD when there’s a repetition of consonants, so that they produce some definite effect.
Assonance – the repetition of vowels.
Both alliteration and assonance may produce the effect of euphony or cacophony.
e.g Nor soul helps flesh now
more than flesh helps soul.
Rhyme: full(might-right) and incomplete rhymes(subdivided into vowel and consonant rhymes)treble-trouble, tale-tool):
Aa – adjacent lines, a couplet
Triple – aaa
Cross – abab
Framing or ring rhymes – abba
Internal rhyme – within the extents of one line.
Rhythm: periodicity. Meter – размер стиха.
Graphic means: illigytmit, sellybrated, yetalians and so on.
Bbbas-tud seen me c-c-c-com-ing